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Kelvin's arguments struck a blow at the prevalent geological theories of the time that argued for a much older Earth.Kelvin assumed that there was no source of "new" heat within the Earth.So the identity of the X depends on how many bonds are needed to make up the total of 16. The first is alkali feldspar and the second is plagioclase feldspar.Alkali feldspar has the formula KAl Si, potassium aluminosilicate.For general purposes, like picking granite for a countertop, it doesn't matter what type of feldspar is in a rock.
A thorough knowledge of the feldspars is what separates geologists from the rest of us.The formula actually is a blend ranging from all sodium (albite) to all potassium (microcline), but albite is also one endpoint in the plagioclase series so we classify it there.This mineral is often called potassium feldspar or K-feldspar because potassium always exceeds sodium in its formula.What is common to all the feldspars is the same arrangement of atoms, a framework arrangement, and one basic chemical recipe, a silicate (silicon plus oxygen) recipe. Silicon makes four chemical bonds with oxygen; that is, it's tetravalent.Quartz is another framework silicate, consisting only of oxygen and silicon, but feldspar has various other metals partly replacing the silicon. Aluminum makes three bonds (trivalent), calcium makes two (divalent) and sodium and potassium make one (monovalent). So there are two different mixtures that are possible in the feldspars, a sodium-potassium series and a sodium-calcium series.
One way is to determine the mineral's density by putting crushed grains in immersion oils of different densities.